*“I love physics with all my heart. It is a kind of personal love, as one has for a person to whom one is grateful for many things”.-*

*Lise Meitner*

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## String Theory Explained 4 Fundamental forces

If we talk about our universe it’s endless. It also has many secrets beneath it. If we talk about the * formation of our earth* we have one of the greatest theories of physics to explain it, which is the

**Big Bang theory**. We saw how Universe started with a Big Bang and nature created the four forces.

These forces work in all the 3 dimensions, we will talk about the fourth dimension and the concept of * 11 dimensions of String theory explained *later on. These fundamental forces are:

**Gravitational force****Electromagnetic force****Strong nuclear force****Weak nuclear force**

## Basics to understand string theory.

String theory explained by scientists can be understood only by first refreshing the concept of Fundamental forces of nature. * Unification of these forces *and providing a single concept that governs the functioning of these forces was necessary for the beginning.

## Maxwell’s Contribution.

First, we thought that the electric force and magnetic forces are not similar until the famous Physicists Maxwell gave his four beautiful equations which * unified both Electric and Magnetic forces into Electromagnetic forces*. Then we concluded that these two forces were not different but they behave differently under different situations. After that, we made these forces one and made an electromagnetic force, which was able to explain both of these forces. Here we have string theory explained in brief.

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## Newton and Gravity.

When we talk about gravitational force it is one the forces which we haven’t been able to explain surely yet. First, the great physicist Newton explains it as the* attraction between two objects* and he also says that it is the weakest force of nature but

*.*

**has the longest range of application**Our earth revolves around the Sun due to this Gravitational force. But after this, the great scientist of our century Einstein challenged this discovery of Newton and concluded that our **earth didn’t revolve due to gravity but due to our curved spacetime.**

We had discussed it in detail in our previous articles so we will not discuss it here in detail rather we will take a quick overview of Quantum Field theory which helps String theory explained better.

## Quantum Field Theory and Gravity.

We saw the emergence of Electromagnetic force and Gravitational force and their unification. Talking about * Strong and Weak Nuclear forces, *they are governed by QFT that is

*.*

**Quantum Field Theory**If we go through this theory deeply we will not see this world as we are seeing right now. It is not easy to explain.

For example, Right now our solar system has only one sun but ** QFT says our solar system could have more than 2 suns** but if practically it will happen our solar system may blast or destroy due to space curved time.

Also according to this theory, * we can be present at two places at a single time*, but practically this is not true. That is why we have string theory explained.

This theory didn’t work beyond the quantum level. But at the quantum level QFT gives most of our answers. The * special case comes when Gravity is considered*.

It didn’t work at the quantum level as by QFT. When the Scientists were * considering gravity at a quantum level, the calculations got way more complicated* and they could not be solved. But if we neglected gravity, QFT gave answers to many questions accurately.

**So the question arises why do we need string theory?** So far, as we mentioned above, to explain the gravitational force of our celestial systems we need the theory of relativity and to explain the other three forces at the quantum level, we need Quantum Field Theory. But to unify these two theories and * explain all the 4 fundamental forces of the Universe,* we need STRING THEORY explained in detail.

## String theory in a nutshell

In oxford dictionary, string theory explained as** a cosmological theory based on the existence of cosmic strings.**

### What are strings?

We know that * at the quantum level protons are the smallest *particle we know but actually, the

*so the protons were no longer the smallest particle. Furthermore, the*

**protons are made up of Quarks***. As Heisenberg said, we can’t know the exact position of a particle. So we can say that a particle vibrates following a pattern, the strings made a close or open path of it.*

**quarks are made of strings**## Who invented String Theory?

String Theory explained by Werner Heisenberg in the year 1943.

### Has String Theory been Proven?

No, String theory has not been proved yet. But scientists agree with the concepts implied by this theory about the formation of Universe and many Quantum Mechanical phenomenon. Most of the logic implied by String theory is yet a mystery.

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### What will string theory prove?

The title * string signifies the zero-dimensional particles* which correlate the theory of relativity with quantum mechanics. This theory implied that Quarks comprise the so-called smallest entities like proton and Electrons. These quarks are further made of Strings. This is how string theory explained our universe.

After 2 years, scientists discovered a * quark particle and named it GRAVITON*, this particle was responsible for the gravitational behaviour of celestial bodies. This theory also helped to

**explain what happened to the universe before the Big Bang occurred.**### Can String theory be proved Wrong?

Actually, in some calculations of string theory, * a particle was discovered that was massless* and showed properties similar to particles with mass. This could not be explained by the Scientists, so this theory was stopped from further developments.

This theory is not applicable to our universe. As we know that our universe is governed by 4 dimensions – * Length, Breadth, Height, and Time*. but the string theory explained our universe in more than 4 dimensions as we discuss below.

## String theory explained the Concept of 10 Dimensions

Actually, there is not only one string theory, but there are also * actually six string theories*, this is because this theory was abandoned before and after they discovered graviton many scientists open their minds to explain it in different ways.

But these are based on the simple basics of the string which is also called **M-theory**. Out of these six theories five says that string theory works in 10 dimensions and the * last string theory explained that Universe works in 26 dimensions*.

So if we consider that it works in 10 dimensions and we only know four where are the rest of the six dimensions. The believer of string theory concludes that there are **many other dimensions in our universe but we can’t see all of them.**

### The relevance of Frame for dimension

Like if take an example of wire, For Humans, a * simple wire is in one dimension*, because for us the diameter of the wire is very small, but if we consider an ant walking on it,

**for an ant that same wire will be in 3-D.**### Validation and Research on String Theory

Do Complex models accommodate a more helpful depiction of reality than we currently have? I think most physicists would say Yes, Definitely. That stated, * nobody realizes how to quantify whatever String theory will imply* in the future. Of course, there are different things that many string models will agree to. (For example Super Symmetry – SUSY,)

SUSY theory agrees totally with the implications of String Theory but it is * not fully developed yet to support String Theory*. If we assume in future, SUSY is discovered and proved right. Then also there is

*because we have already seen Models of String Theory that work far beyond the domain of Super Symmetry. Therefore, the enthusiasm for string models has significantly decreased in the course of the last twenty years.*

**No guarantee that String Theory is correct**Don’t forget to check out Indian Battles like Battle of Talikota