BATTLE OF PANIPAT: Establishment of Mughal Rule in India.

Three of the bloodiest war occurred in Panipat which changed the entire fate of the Indian subcontinent for centuries. These battles marked the beginning and establishment of Mughals in the Indian subcontinent. Their rule lasted for about 2 centuries until the Britishers took over. Here we discuss the 3 Battle of Panipat, their impact on our past, circumstances, and consequences of this bloodshed.

First Battle of Panipat

It was fought in April 1526 and marked the beginning of the Mughal empire. The battle was fought between the sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, and emperor of Ferghana, Babur. Ibrahim Lodhi was a great warrior, but still, there was a lot of rebellion along with his dynasty as his decisions were not up to the mark.

horses running in battle of panipat
Horses running in the Battle.

Babur took advantage of this and knowing the fact that his army is too small i.e., 1:12 against the army of Lodhi. Babur was good at making war strategies while on the other hand, Lodhi, despite having huge forces and elephants in cavalry Lodhi, was incapable of having patience.

War Strategy

Cannons being used in War
Cannons being used in War

Babur managed his troops along left, right and centre, and moreover, at the centre, he kept deadly cannons and waited for Lodhi to rush. Within no time, Lodhi’s army was surrounded from all directions. The elephants which were supposed to help Lodhi, unfortunately, helped Babur to win the battle as by hearing the sounds of the canon elephants crushed their own man. This was the turning point of the battle, and finally, Lodhi was killed in the battle and the army of Lodhi was thrashed, and this marked the beginning of  Mughal empire in India.

Second Battle of Panipat 

It took place after three decades of the first battle of Panipat i.e. in 1556 AD. The battle was fought between Hem Chandra Vikramaditya aka HEMU and the great Akbar. After the death of Humayun, Hemu was able to gain the throne of Delhi. Akbar was only 13 years old when he became the emperor of Mughal, but his commander, the Bairam khan, was a capable advisor as well as good in making war strategies.

Battle of Panipat 2 in action
Battle of Panipat 2 in action

War Strategy

In the second battle of Panipat, Mughal was outnumbered by the Hemu’s army; moreover, he was leading from the front. Hemu was able to capture the right and left flanks of the Mughal empire. Akbar and bairam khan did not engage in the battle. They both were behind the cavalry, which wasn’t in the case of Hemu. As he was in centre leading riding one of the elephants.

The Turning Point

Hemu was winning the battle, but unfortunately, one of the arrows find his ways to his helmet. After the death of Hemu, the army panicked and lost their lines. Babur took advantage of this situation and won the battle. This victory of Mughals leads to the establishment of the Mughal empire in Delhi. Thus gaining control in central India.

If you are fascinated , Know in detail about this war here.

Third Battle of Panipat

Armies of maratha and Abdali in Battle of Panipat 3

It took place between Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Maratha empire, this battle holds the record for the death of most men during a single day and was considered the biggest battle of all time before world war. Maratha empire was quite powerful and vast throughout India and laid a treaty will Mughals that taxes will be paid to them, and in return, they will provide safety against afghans.

The Politics

one lack soldiers marched to Delhi, and within the way, many civilians join to visit north under the protection of the army. Peshwa nana sahib made his cousin Sada Shiv Rao to lead the forces instead of his own brother Raghunath Rao due to some internal politics.

chess board showing politics in battle of panipat
Politics in Battle of Panipat

Marathas were able to recapture Delhi while Abdali forces were in the east of Yamuna. Raghunath Rao decided to go north(Panipat) for resources as treasure from Delhi was already taken by afghans. Abdali was a good diplomat as he was able to make alliances with gorillas and Awadhby playing the card of the enemy of an enemy is a friend. While Marathas didn’t make an alliance with Rajputs or jats.

The Misunderstanding

Abdali forces then surrounded Marathas from the south of Panipat, and Marathas’ supply line from Delhi was cut off. Due to fear of death from starvation, Marathas soon decided to fight against on 14 Jan 1761. Marathas were able to thrash afghans but suddenly Peshwa’s son went missing due to which Sada Shiv Rao decided to search for him. He came down from his elephant and searched for Peshwa’s son while the troops didn’t find their commander on the elephant. They thought he died.this lead to panic in the camp side, leading to the defeat of ultimate Marathas at the battle of Panipat. 

Result

result of Battle of panipat 3
Power vaccum shown by empty War Helmet.

This battle created a power vacuum in India, as no one had supreme control in the Indian subcontinent. Power was divided between groups like Marathas, Afghans, Mughals, Sikhs, and regional rulers. Due to this fact, Britishers found it easier to break in Indian politics and gain control over administrative power division. 

 

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